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    白居易彈《琵琶行》尋《賣炭翁》

    發布于:2019-02-12 09:15  ┊ 閱讀  ┊  人參與  ┊ 文 / 梁衛山

      古代山西詩人中,名氣最大的要數白居易了,他是繼李白、杜甫之后唐代又一位大詩人,世稱李杜白為唐代三大詩人。白居易,山西太原人,出身于仕宦之家,高祖、曾祖、祖父俱為官,父親曾任朝奉大夫、襄州別駕、大理少卿,累贈刑部尚書右仆射等職。白居易因其祖、父俱在河南作官,所以居家河南,他于唐代宗大歷七年(公元772年)正月二十日生干河南新鄭縣東郭宅。武宗會昌六年(846年)八月卒于洛陽,享年75歲。

      唐憲宗元和十年,白居易被貶為九江郡司馬。第二年秋季的一天,送客到湓浦口,夜里聽到船上有人彈琵琶。聽那聲音,錚錚鏗鏗有京都流行的聲韻。探問這個人,原來是長安的歌女,曾經向穆、曹兩位琵琶大師學藝。后來年紀大了,紅顏退盡,嫁給商人為妻。于是命人擺酒叫她暢快地彈幾曲。她彈完后,有些悶悶不樂的樣子,自己說起了少年時歡樂之事,而今漂泊沉淪,形容憔悴,在江湖之間輾轉流浪。這位來自長安歌女的話,勾起了白居易的心事,他離京調外任職兩年來,隨遇而安,自得其樂,而今被這個人的話所感觸,這天夜里才有被降職的感覺。于是撰寫一首長詩贈送給她,共六百一十六字,題為《琵琶行》。

      《琵琶行》創作于元和十一年(公元816年),為七言古詩。白居易任諫官時,直言敢諫,同情民間疾苦,寫了大量的諷諭詩,因此觸怒了唐憲宗,得罪了權貴被貶。他的被貶其實是一樁冤案,他連遭打擊,心境凄涼,滿懷郁憤。次年(既元和十一年)送客湓浦口,遇到琵琶女,創作出這首傳世名篇。作為一首敘事長詩,這首詩結構嚴謹縝密,錯落有致,情節曲折,波瀾起伏。

      《琵琶行》的詩眼(也就是主旨)是“同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識。”全詩通過寫琵琶女生活的不幸,結合了白居易自己在宦途所受到的打擊,唱出了“同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識”的深刻心聲。社會的動蕩,世態的炎涼,對不幸者命運的同情,對自身失意的感慨,這些本來就積蓄在白居易心中的沉痛感受,都一起傾于詩中。《琵琶行》在藝術上的成功還在于運用了優美鮮明的、有音樂感的語言,用視覺的形象來表現聽覺所得來的感受,蕭瑟秋風的自然景色和離情別緒,使作品更加感人。

      在這首詩中著力塑造了琵琶女的形象,通過它深刻地反映了封建社會中被侮辱被損害的樂伎、藝人的悲慘命運,抒發“同是天涯淪落人”的感情。《琵琶行》詩的開頭第一部分寫江上送客,忽聞琵琶聲,為引出琵琶女作交代。從“潯陽江頭夜送客”至“猶抱琵琶半遮面”,敘寫送別宴無音樂的遺憾,邀請商人婦彈奏琵琶的情形,細致描繪琵琶的聲調,著力塑造了琵琶女的形象。首句“潯陽江頭夜送客”,只七個字,就把人物(主人和客人)、地點(潯陽江頭)、事件(主人送客人)和時間(夜晚)一一作概括的介紹;再用“楓葉荻花秋瑟瑟”一句作環境的烘染,而秋夜送客的蕭瑟落寞之感,已曲曲傳出。惟其蕭瑟落寞,因而反跌出“舉酒欲飲無管弦”。

      宋人洪邁認為夜遇琵琶女事未必可信,作者是通過虛構的情節,抒發他自己的“天涯淪落之恨”(《容齋隨筆》卷七),這是抓住了要害的。但那虛構的情節既然真實地反映了琵琶女的不幸遭遇,那么就詩的客觀意義說,它也抒發了“長安故倡”的“天涯淪落之恨”,看不到這一點同樣有片面性。毋庸置疑在這首長詩里白居易著力塑造了琵琶女的形象。從開頭到“猶抱琵琶半遮面”,寫琵琶女的出場。首句“潯陽江頭夜送客”,只七個字,就把人物(主人和客人)、地點(潯陽江頭)、事件(主人送客人)和時間(夜晚)一一作概括的介紹;再用“楓葉荻花秋瑟瑟”一句作環境的烘染,而秋夜送客的蕭瑟落寞之。

      而白居易的《賣炭翁》呢則秉承了他一貫借人借事諷刺官場腐敗、社會黑暗的筆鋒,揭露了老百姓承受剝削階級肆意剝削的現實,揭露了當時社會的黑暗,也同時表現出了作者對下層勞動人民的深切同情。

      白居易的《賣炭翁》描寫一個燒木炭的老人謀生的困苦,詩一開頭就把讀者帶到當時的京城長安附近的終南山上,讓讀者看到一個燒炭的老人過著的十分窮苦的生活。“賣炭翁,伐薪燒炭南山中”。燒炭的老翁連一寸土地也沒有,全部賴以為生的東西,只不過是一把斧頭、一掛牛車,再加上十個被煙火熏黑的手指頭。他沒有妻子也沒有兒女,孤苦伶仃的一個人,在南山上伐薪、燒炭,弄得“滿面塵灰煙火色,兩鬢蒼蒼十指黑”,勞動的艱苦是可想而知的。這燒炭的老人對生活并沒有過高的要求,“賣炭得錢何所營?身上衣裳口中食”,他僅僅希望有吃有穿,維持一種最低的生活。按理說,一個人養活自己一個人,并不是什么困難的事情,可是現實卻恰恰相反,這位賣炭的老翁,整年在南山里砍柴燒炭。他滿臉灰塵,顯出被煙熏火燎的顏色,兩鬢頭發灰白,十個手指也被炭燒得很黑。賣炭得到的錢用來干什么?買身上穿的衣裳和嘴里吃的食物。可是他身上只穿著單薄的衣服,心里卻擔心炭賣不出去,還希望天更寒冷。

      夜里城外下了一尺厚的大雪,清晨,老翁駕著炭車碾軋冰凍的車輪印往集市上趕去。牛累了,人餓了,但太陽已經升得很高了,他們就在集市南門外泥濘中歇息。那得意忘形的騎著兩匹馬的人是誰啊?是皇宮內的太監和太監的手下。太監手里拿著文書,嘴里卻說是皇帝的命令,吆喝著牛朝皇宮拉去……《賣炭翁》是白居易《新樂府》組詩中的第三十二首,自注云:“苦宮市也。”白居易寫作《新樂府》是在元和(唐憲宗年號,806—820)初年,這正是宮市為害最深的時候。他對宮市有十分的了解,對人民又有深切的同情,所以才能寫出這首感人至深的《賣炭翁》來。

      《賣炭翁》詩載于《全唐詩》卷四百二十七。通詩寫賣炭翁的炭來之不易。“伐薪、燒炭”,概括了復雜的工序和漫長的勞動過程。“滿面塵灰煙火色,兩鬢蒼蒼十指黑”,活畫出賣炭翁的肖像,寫出勞動的艱辛,也得到了形象的表現。“南山中”點出勞動場所,這“南山”就是王維所寫的“欲投人處宿,隔水問樵夫”的終南山,豺狼出沒,荒無人煙。在這樣的環境里披星戴月,凌霜冒雪,一斧一斧地“伐薪”,一窯一窯地“燒炭”,好容易燒出“千余斤”,每一斤都滲透著心血,也凝聚著希望。封建統治階級為了滿足其腐朽豪奢的生活欲望,除了名目繁多的苛捐雜稅以外,還采取其他手段巧取豪奪人民的血汗。中唐以后,朝廷里經常派人到市場上去采購物品。他們一看到中意的東西,就隨便付給很低的代價,或任意掠奪而去,有時還要物主把貨物送進宮內,然后倒打一耙,向物主勒索“門戶錢”和“腳價錢”。韓愈在《順宗實錄》中曾具體記載過一位農民用驢子馱著木柴到城里去賣,宦官見了口稱“宮市”,只給了幾尺絹,就把木柴搶去了,還要奪走他養家糊口的驢子,農民在忍無可忍的情況下,毆打了為非作歹的宦官。白居易在長安時親眼目睹這類弊政,心情十分憤慨,于是寫《賣炭翁》予以鞭策!

      白居易在《新樂府》中每首詩的題目下面都有一個序,說明這首詩的主題。《賣炭翁》的序是“苦宮市也”,就是要反映宮市給人民造成的痛苦。唐代皇宮里需要物品,就派人去市場上拿,隨便給點錢,實際上是公開掠奪,唐德宗時用太監專管其事。白居易寫作《新樂府》是在宮市為害最深的時候,他對宮市有十分的了解,對人民又有深切的同情,所以才能寫出這首感人至深的《賣炭翁》來。這首詩的意義,遠不止于對宮市的揭露。詩人在賣炭翁這個典型形象上,概括了唐代勞動人民的辛酸和悲苦,在賣炭這一件小事上反映出了當時社會的黑暗和不平。

      

    責任編輯:忽然花開 作者文集 作者聲明
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